The Verb-2
Non-finite verb:

A Non-finite verb is a form of verb that is not limited by person, number or tense in a sentence and cannot act as main verb.

Non-Finite Verb

Non-Finite Verb  কে তিন ভাগে ভাগ করা যায়। যথা:

(a)Infinitive;           (b) Participle.           (c) Gerund.

 

(a) Infinitive: Verb এর Present রূপ এর পূর্বে  to যুক্ত করলে যে রূপ গঠিত হয তাহাই Infinitive.    

যেমন:  a. He came to meet me.                     b. They want you to make a good result.

 Use of Initiative:

  1.   Verb এর Subject  হিসাবে বসে। যেমন:

           (i) To swim is a good exercise.      (ii) To tell a lie is a great sin.   (c) To err is human.

  1.   Transitive Verb  এর Object  হিসাবে বসে। যেমন:

            (i) My wife has planned to go there. (ii) He likes to play football.

(iii) He wants to teach me.

  1.   Subject এর Complement হিসাবে বসে। যেমন:

          (i) His target is to get  A+.                (ii) My hobby is to angle.(বড়শি মাছ ধরা)

  1.   Preposition এর Object রূপে বসতে পারে। যেমন:

          (i) The man was about to die.      (ii) The floor was about to bloom but did not bloom.

  1.   অনেক সময় Sentence এর শুরুতে Infinitive এসে Sentence এর অর্থকে পরিপূর্ণ করে। যেমন:–

            (i) To speak the truth, he is an honest man.   (ii) To be brief, he will not come.

Bare Infinitive:  আমরা জানি পাশাপাশি দুইটা Verb আসলে পরের Verb টি Gerund হয় অথবা Participle হয় কিন্তু কিছু Verb আছে যাদের পরে Infinitive বসা উচিৎ ছিল কিন্তু বসে না তাদেরকে Bare Infinitive বলা হয়।  জাতীয় Verb গুলির পরে একটা Object বসে অতঃপর তারপর একটা Base form of Verb বসে   জাতীয় Verb গুলি হলlet, make see, watch, hear, behold,

            (i) He does not let me go home.                     (ii) They saw me go there.

            (iii) We heard her sing a song.                       (iv) Father made us understand it.

 

Participle: Verb  এর যে রূপ একই সাথে Verb  Adjective এর কাজ করে তাকে Participle বলে। যেমন:

  1. We saw a singing bird.                       b. Lost health can hardly be recovered.

Participle  কে আবার  ভাগে ভাগ করা যায়। যথা:

(a) Present Participle   (b) Past Participle   (c) Perfect Participle.

(a) Present Participle : Verb  এর সাথে ing  যুক্ত করলে যদি সেটি Verb  Adjective হিসেবে কাজ করে তাহলে Present Participle. যেমন:

  1. A barking dog seldom bites.            b. None should get on a running bus.
  2. We found them playing cricket.      d. We were enjoying an exciting game.

 Uses of Participle:

  1. Noun  এর আগে বসে Noun এর গুণ প্রকাশ করে। যেমন:

         (i) This is an interesting story.  (ii) He has a pleasing voice. (iii) He shot a flying bird.

  1.   কখনো কখনো Preposition  হিসাবে বসতে পারে। যেমন:

(i) The boy knew nothing regarding it.         (ii) Nobody came saving(except) one.

(iii) He gave a piece of information regarding (about) him.

  1.   অনেক সময় see, hear, watch, find  ইত্যাদি verb এর পর Object এবং তার পরের অংশটি present Participle  হিসেবে গণ্য হয়। যেমন:

(i) He saw me coming here.        (ii) We heard her singing.

  1.   Have, get, start, keep, leave, find, catch  ইত্যাদি Verb এর পর Subject  এবং তারপর ing  যুক্ত অংশ থাকলে সেটি Present Participle হিসেবে গণ্য হয়। যেমন:

            (i) He kept me waiting.          (ii) I caught the man stealing a mango.

  1.   Present Participle  কখনও কখনো সময়কারণ  শর্ত প্রকাশ করার জন্য ব্যবহৃত হয়। যেমন:

(i) Being ill, he could not come to the meeting.

(ii) While walking along the road, I saw a dead cow.

(iii) Turning to the left, you will find my house.

Past Participle: Verb  এর Past Participle  বা ৩য় রূপ যখন একই সাথে Verb    Adjective  এর কাজ করে তখন তাকে Past Participle  বলে। যেমন:

  1.   Remove the broken glass.
  2.   His father is a retired army officer.
  3. Don’t drink arsenic contaminated water.

Prefect Participle: Having + মূল  verb এর Past participle কে  Perfect Participle  বলে। যেমন:

  1. Having done it. he went away.    
  2. He went away having closed the door.

 

 Gerund: Verb  এর সাথে ing যুক্ত করলে যদি একই সাথে Verb  Noun এর কাজ করে তাহলে তাকে Gerund  বলে।

যেমনa. Walking is a good exercise.    b. He stops reading novels.

 Use of Gerund:

  1.   Verb এর Subject  হিসাবে বসে। যেমনSwimming is a good exercise
  2.   Transitive Verb  এর Object  হিসাবে বসে। যেমনMy wife loves gardening.
  3.   Subject এর Complement হিসাবে বসে |

যেমন:  (i) His target is getting  a+. (ii) My hobby is angling

  1.   Preposition এর Object রূপে বসতে পারে। যেমন:

            (i) He is absorbed in reading.                (ii)  I am fond of playing.

  1.   Compound Noun  এর অংশ হিসাবে বসতে পারে। যেমন:

          (i) This is our dressing table.           (ii) He is in the drawing room.

  1.    যদি Possessive (যেমনmy, his, her, your, their ইত্যাদি)-এর পর Verb  এর সাথে ing যুক্ত হয়। যেমন:

            (i) He scolded me for my telling a lie.   (ii) I am afraid of its happening.