The Determiners part-1

The Determinerযে সকল শব্দ বা শব্দ সমষ্টি কোন noun এর আগে বসে কোন noun এর নির্দিষ্টতা বা অনির্দিষ্টতা বা সংখ্যা বা পরিমান বা মালিকানা প্রকাশ করে তাকে Determiner বলে

যেমনঃ–    He reads a book./  I have lost the pen. / Some boys were making a noise in the class. / He will buy two shirts. /I have a few friends there.

উপরের উদাহরণগুলির মধ্যে pen, noise class, shirts friends এই গুলোর পূর্বে a, the, a, two, the, a few শব্দগুলি বসেছে। এই গুলিই Determiners.

মূলতঃ Determiners দুই ধরনের। যথাঃ

  1. a) Specific Determiner
  2. b) General Determiner
  3. a) Specific Determiner:– কোন কিছুকে বা কাউকে নির্দিষ্ট করে চেনার জন্য যে সমস্ত Determiners ব্যবহার করা হয়সেগুলিকে Specific Determiner বলা হয়। যেমনঃ

The boys are playing in the field. –এখানে The শব্দটি Specific Determiner

  1. b) General Determiner:- কোন কিছুকে বা কাউকে অনির্দিষ্ট করে চেনার জন্য বা সাধারণভাবে চেনার জন্য যে সমস্ত Determiners ব্যবহার করা হয় সেগুলিকে General Determiner বলা হয়। যেমনঃ– Some weak students were reading in the class. এখানে Some শব্দটি General Determiner.

 

Determiners হল ৫টি যথা:

 (a) Articles: a, an, the.

 (b) Demonstrative  (ইঙ্গিত বাচক শব্দ):  This, that, These, Those,

 (c) Possessive (/এর বাচক শব্দ):  My, his, her, your, our, its, their.

(d) Numerals (সংখ্যাবাচক শব্দ):  Two, three, four, five, etc.

(e) Quantifiers   (পরিমানবাচক শব্দ):  Some, many, much, a lot, all, few, enough, either, neither, a great deal of, a lot of, plenty of, several, a great number of.

 

Use of Some Important Determiners

Rule-1: Both, all, such, half, many, quite প্রভৃতি কোন Noun কে Modify করলে সাধারনতঃ এদের পরে Noun টির সাথে article বসে। (both / all + the এবং অন্যগুলো + a an) যেমনঃ

1.Incorrect: A half loaf is better than no loaf .

Correct: Half a loaf is better than no loaf.

2.Incorrect: I want such thing.

Correct: I want such a thing.

3.Incorrect: The all world is a stage.

Correct: All the world is a stage.

Rule-2: many a / an এর পরে singular noun এবং singular verb বসে। যথাঃ  

1.Incorrect: Many a men were listening to him.

Correct: Many a man was listening to him.

2.Incorrect: Many an ants were rushing.

Correct: Many an ant was rushing.

Rule-3: তবে many / a great many / a good many এর পরে Plural noun এবং  Plural verb বসে। যথাঃ  

Incorrect: We saw that a great many bird was bathing there.

Correct: We saw that a great many birds were bathing there.

Rule-4: Few, a few, the few, very few এর পরে Plural countable noun বসে এবং Little, a little, the little, very little এর পরে uncountable noun বসে। উল্লেখ্য যে, few এবং  little সবসময় Negative অর্থ দেয় অর্থাৎ ’নেই বা না বল্লেই চলে’ এমন ভাব প্রকাশ করে। যথাঃ

1.Incorrect:Few reference book may be checked out.

Correct: Few reference books may be checked out.

2.Incorrect: Give the cat a little fishes.

Correct: Give the cat a little fish.

Note: Little, a little / few, a few এর উপর ব্যবহারের দক্ষতা অর্জন করার জন্য একটি গল্প মনে রাখা যেতে পারেএকদা দুইজন লোক ছিল। তাদের প্রত্যেকেরই অর্ধ কাপ করে সূখ ( অর্ধেক সুখছিল। একজন বললঃ How sad! I have little happiness. অন্যজন বললঃ How wonderful! I have a little happiness. এবার লক্ষ্য করলে দেখবো Little, a little অথবা few, a few এর ব্যবহার হলো দৃষ্টিভঙ্গির ব্যপার। Negative মনোভাব প্রকাশের জন্য  little / few এবং Positive মনোভাব প্রকাশের জন্য a little / a few বসে

Rule-5:  few /  little এর সাথে only থাকলে অবশ্যই Only a few / only a little বসে। যথাঃ

1.Incorrect: Only few students are lazy.

Correct: only a few students are lazy.

2.Incorrect: We will need only little food.

Correct: We will need only a little food.

3.Incorrect: Only few crop can be grown on arid land.

Correct: only a few crops can be grown on arid land. [crop- শস্য, Crops- গাছগাছালিশস্যাদি

Rule-6: Any শব্দটি negative এবং Interrogative উভয় ধরনের বাক্যে ব্যবহার করা যায় কিন্তু Some শব্দটি Affirmative বাক্যে বসে। যথাঃ  1. Incorrect: She did not give me some books.

Correct: She did not give me any books.

2.Incorrect: He has any new books.

Correct: He has some new books.

[তবে যে সকল প্রশ্নবোধক বাক্যের জবাব affirmative আশা করা হয়তদের ক্ষেত্রে some বসে। যথাঃ Will you bring me some water?]

Rule-7: Another (an + other) এর পরে singular noun, other এর পরে plural noun বসে। তবে  any other এর পরে Singular / plural noun উভয়ই বসতে পারে। যথাঃ

  1. Incorrect: Give me another mangoes.

Correct: Give me another mango.

  1. Incorrect: He went to Khulna, Dhaka and other place.

Correct: He went to Khulna, Dhaka and other places.

Rule-8: Enough শব্দটি দ্বারা যদি Noun কে বিশেষিত করা হয় তাহলে তার পুর্বে এবং যদি Adjective / Adverb কে বিশেষিত করে তার পরে বসে। উল্লেখ্য যেকিছু কিছু Grammarian যদিও মত দেন যে, enough শব্দটি Noun এর ক্ষেত্রে পূর্বে এবং পরে উভয় স্থানে বসে– তা অধিক গ্রহণযোগ্য নয়। যথাঃ 1. It is not cold enough to wear a heavy jacket.

  1. She speaks Spanish well enough to be an interpreter.
  2. Do you have enough sugar for the cake?

Another important point about using determiner

Determiner এর সঠিক ব্যবহার রপ্ত করার জন্য uncountable Noun বা অগননাযোগ্য বিশেষ্যগুলি চেনা আবশ্যক

The following kinds of nouns are uncountable:-

  1. Food:bread, meat, butter etc
  2. Material:wood, iron, glass etc
  3. Substance with small parts:rice, sand, sugar etc
  4. Things of different size:clothing, furniture, luggage etc
  5. Abstract concept:beauty, peace, ignorance etc.
  6. Unit object:food, money, soap, paper etc
  7. Disease:measles, mumps (পনশিকা), cholera etc
  8. Subject area:economics, physics, mathematics etc
  9. Fluids:water, milk, oil etc
  10. Gases:air, smoke, oxygen etc
  11. Games:football, cricket, tennis etc
  12. Other intangibles (অন্যান্য অদৃশ্য বিষয়): Advice, information, knowledge etc
  13. Verbal nouns:camping, cooking, jumping etc

ব্যবহারউপরের Noun গুলি কখনো a / an এর সাথে ব্যবহার করা যাবে না। তবে Noun গুলি যদি bit of / piece of / slice of এর পরে বসেতাহলে a / an গ্রহণ করবে। যেমনঃ

a bit / piece of news a grain (কনা) of sand a cake / bar of soap a clap (প্রচন্ড শব্দ)of thunder
a drop of oil a piece of advice a gust (দমকা) of wind a bolt (বজ্র) of lightning
a sheet of paper a pane (শার্সি) of glass a loaf / slice of bread an ear (শিস) of corn

Example in sentence: Incorrect: Do you have an information about it?

                                    Correct: Do you have information about it?  

Or, Do you have any information about it?

কিছু সমার্থবোধক Noun আছেযার একটি countable এবং অন্যটি uncountable যেমনঃ

Countable Noun Uncountable Countable Noun Uncountable
a climate / climates

a laugh / laughs

a human being / human beings

a job / jobs

a sunbeam / sunbeams

weather

laughter

humanity

work

sunlight; sunshine

a machine / machines

a man / men

a person / persons

a snowflake / snowflakes

a traffic jam / traffic jams

machinery

mankind; man

people

snow

traffic