Linking Verb and Modals Part-2

Modal Auxiliary verb

Rather/ Would rather / would rather that

পছন্দের তুলনা বুঝাতে rather + v1 . e.g: You  rather   send  him here 

দুটি কাজের মধ্যে পছন্দের তুলনা বুঝাতে would rather + v1……. Than + v1

Example:   I would   rather  starve  than beg

 Would   rather + verb হলে

  1. i) I would    rather + v1 …………..  (Present / future indication)

 I would   rather   do the work    today

Ii   would rather + Have   + v3 …….. past   indication

 I would   rather   have done   the work yesterday

 Would   rather + clause হলে

  1. would rather   +that   sub + v2 ………. Present / future indication

 I would rather that you   did the work   today.

Ii. Would rather + that + sub +   had + v3 ……. Past indication

 I would rather that you had done the work yesterday.

 

Must / must be / must have

কোন কাজ অবশ্যই করতে হবে বা করা হয়এমন অর্থ প্রকাশ করতে Must + v1 বসে।

Example:   One must endorse a check   before one cashes it.

/ We must submit to our parents 

  – [logical conclusion] অনুমান বা সিদ্ধান্ত গ্রহণের ক্ষেত্রে নিম্নরুপে must ব্যবহৃত হয়।

 Example: 

  1. বার বার ঘটে এমন : must  + v1  

Shayna always gets the highest marks in the class. She must study hard

  1. বর্তমানের অনুমান : Must + be + verb (ing)

Shayna   nowadays   gets  the highest  marks  in the  class. She must be studying   hard.

iii. অতীতের ব্যাপারে অনুমান : Must + have + v3

Today shayna   has   got the highest marks in the class. She must have   studied   hard.

 

Have to / has to / hadto:

  1. কোন কাজ অবশ্যই করতে হবে। অর্থাৎ Complete obligation বুঝাতে have to বসে। অর্থগত দিক থেকে have to এর meaning must এর মত হলেও কিছুটা তফাৎ রয়েছে।

 Example:   -Shagor has to / must call his insurance agent today.

 -A pharmacist has to / must keep a record of the prescriptions that are filled.

  1. Have to যে কোন tense  বসতে পারে। কিন্তু must শুধুমাত্র present structure  বসবে।

– Shogor had to call his insurance agent today. [Not must]

– A pharmacist had to   keep a record   of the prescriptions that are filled. [Not must] 

 Need:

  1. need এরsubject হিসেবে বস্তুবাচক কিছু থাকলে Need+ Gerund (Verb + ing) যেমন:

টিভি টা মেরামত করা দরকার – TV needs repairing.                 

বাড়ীটা মেরামত করা দরকার  The house needs repairing     

 অথবা Subject + need to be + past participle of verb. যেমনa. TV needs to be repaired.     b. The house needs to be painted.

 

  1. B.  Subject+ be + in need of +Noun

Need কে উপরোক্ত structure অনুযায়ী noun হিসাবেও ব্যবহার করা যেতে পারে যেমন:

  আমাদের টাকা দরকার  – We are in need of money (= We need money).

রানার টাকার দরকার হয়েছিল  -Rana was in need of money.(= Rana  needed money)

C . need not have + Past participle / did not need to + present form of verb: কোন কাজ করার পর মনে হয় যে কাজটা করার কোন প্রয়োজন ছিল না এই অর্থে ইহা বসে যেমনআমাদের পেনসিলটা আনার দরকার ছিল না  – We need not have brought the pencil.                            

.  তার সেখানে যাওয়ার দরকার ছিলনা  He did not need to go there.